The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result.
Form of Present Perfect
I / you / we / they- I have spoken.
he / she / it- He has spoken.
I / you / we / they- I have not spoken.
he / she / it- He has not spoken.
Have I spoken?
Has he spoken?
Use of Present Perfect
- puts emphasis on the result
Example: She has written five letters.
- action that is still going on
Example: School has not started yet.
- action that stopped recently
Example: She has cooked dinner.
- finished action that has an influence on the present
Example: I have lost my key.
- action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
Example: I have never been to Australia.
- Signal Words of Present Perfect
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
- Exercises on Present Perfect: